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Oxford IB Biology Study leostovrefisis.ga - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online. Aug 19, [Ebook PDF] IB Biology Study Guide: edition: Oxford IB Diploma Program FOR DOWNLOAD. This guide can be found on the subject page of the online curriculum centre ( OCC) at leostovrefisis.ga, a The Diploma Programme is a rigorous pre- university course of study leostovrefisis.ga pdf.
Polygenetic inheritance is when multiple independent pairs of genes have similar and additive effects on the same trait - Coded for by more than one gene - Appear in a normal distribution curve Examples: Skin, eye, hair colors Diploid: having the full set of chromosomes 2n or 46 chromosomes Haploid: gametes egg and sperm only half the number of chromosomes n Mathematics and Genetics Probability — The fraction, percentage, or ratio that is used to describe the chance of an event occurring.
In genetics, probabilities predict phenotypes and genotypes that come from genetic crosses. Product Rule — The probability that two or more independent events will occur together is found using the product of the individual probabilities of each event. The answer can be found using the product rule: 0. So there is a 1 in 64 chance that three short plants will be produced in a row.
Hardy—Weinberg principle — Named after English mathematician Godfrey Hardy and German physician William Weinberg, this principle shows the expected frequencies of different genotypes in a population. Though this rule represents an ideal population in which there is random mating, no mutation, a large population size, no migration emigration of immigration and no natural selection, it helps us understand that in large populations, the process of inheritance does not cause changes in allele frequencies alone.
Therefore, p represents the dominant allele A while q represents the recessive allele a. Each spiral strand, composed of a sugar phosphate backbone and attached bases, is connected to a complementary strand by hydrogen bonding non- covalent between paired bases, adenine A with thymine T and guanine G with cytosine C. Adenine and thymine are connected by two hydrogen bonds non-covalent while guanine and cytosine are connected by three.
This structure was first described by James Watson and Francis Crick in Transcription -Occurs in the nucleus -Occurs in a 5'-3' direction -RNA Polymerase recognizes the start point at the promoter region. Ribonucleoside triphosphate supply the energy for transcription and become RNA nucleotides by losing a phosphate.
Transcription ends at the terminator region.
RNA undergoes splicing to remove introns before it leaves the nucleus. Translation consists of initiation, elongation, and termination. The start codon is always AUG.
One strand of DNA contains a sugar and phosphate backbone and a base. The subunits of DNA are Nucleotides. The bases are adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine. Adenine and guanine are purines.
Thymine and cytosine are pyrimidines. Adenine pairs with Thymine and Guanine pairs with Cytosine. Most of DNA is repetitive sequences that don't code for anything, only a small portion is coding.
The nucleotides are held together by phosphodiester bonds which links the sugar and the phosphate. DNA strands also run anti-parallel. Basically, this means that on any give strand, one end of the phosphate is attached to a 5' carbon and the other to a 3' carbon.
When two DNA strands join the 5' carbon attaches itself to the 3' carbon end. The DNA is coiled around the proteins histones and then folded over itself. Histones make up a nulceosome, which is a complete coil of DNA around the histone core eight histones held together by one histone stabilizing protein. This means that each new DNA molecule has half of the original.
Helix-destabilizing proteins keep the helix in the unzipped position until the complimentary bases are added. The energy and nucleotides are provided by Deoxynucleoside Triphosphate. Replication is initiated at many points and is discontinuous in one strand and continuous in the other.
The lagging strand moves away from the replication fork and is synthesized in fragments because DNA polymerase cannot move too far from the replication fork and the leading strand goes toward it. The fragments on the lagging strand are known as Okazaki fragments and the fragments are joined together by DNA ligase.
A nucleosome is made up of eight histones with DNA wrapped around it and a stabilizing histone on top. Nucleosomes package DNA into chromosomes. Transcription: In a general sense, transcription is the process of copying the specific needed recipe from the huge cookbook, slimming off all the excess and sending out to be made.
The RNA polymerase then lays down the needed coinciding base units on the anti-sense strand. Translation: Translation is the actual cooking of the recipe. It is the process of ribosomes reading the specific amino acids and sending the instructions out into the cell. This whole awesome process goes down in the cytoplasm. The anit codon UAC connects with the codon at the Peptide station on the large s.
DNA is a nucleic acid polymer made from nucleotides the monomers of nucleic acids. Each nucleotide is made made of a phosphate, a sugar, and a base. The base is bonded to the sugar which is bonded to phosphates. The sugars and phoshpates bond together phosphodiester bond in an alternating pattern the forms the backbone of DNA. The nucleotides of DNA contain 4 bases, the purines encompassing Adenine and Guanine and the pyrimidines which include Cytocene and Thymine.
These nucleotides combine to form a strand of DNA. DNA is a double stranded molecule. The strands are linked by hydrogen bonds between the bases. Adenine bonds with Thymine and is held by two hydrogen bonds, and Cytocene bonds with Guanine and is held together by three hydrogen bonds.
It is this difference in bond number and thus strength that accounts for the helicle shape. Chromosome composition includes DNA genes and a protein. The replication fork occurs at both ends so DNA replication proceeds in both directions. DNA Replication There are three types of replication: 1. Semi-conservative replication - The new DNA molecules have half the genetic material as the original. Conservative replication - The new molecules have all the genetic material of original.
Dispersive replication - Each molecule contains a mixture of genetic material in various regions on each strand. The Y-shaped structure at which both DNA strands are replicated simultaneously is known as the replication fork. There is a lagging strand, which is always leaving the replication fork, as well as a leading strand, which continuously moves toward the fork.
The lagging strand, however, is synthesized in an irregular fashion since the DNA polymerase, which catalyzes the linking of DNA subunits, cannot be too far from the replication fork. Okazaki fragments are present on the lagging strand, where replication is discontinuous. Replication on the leading strand is continuous.
A nucleosome is made up of DNA that is wrapped around eight histone proteins, where one of the histones stabilizes the structure.
DNA Transcription occurs in a 5'-3' direction in the nucleus. First the promotor reginon allows RNA polymerase to recognize the start point. An annual anal Embed Size px. Start on.
Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. Published in: Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Be the first to like this. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. IB Biology Study Guide: Oxford IB Diploma Program 2. This comprehensive Study Guide reinforces all the key concepts for the syllabus, ensuring students develop a clear understanding of all the crucial topics at SL and HL.
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