by: Francesco Guicciardini, Ninian Hill Thomson Translation of the author's Ricordi politici e civili, which was first published in volume one of. Guicciardini - leostovrefisis.ga - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. However, it is the Ricordi, which clearly reveal the link between Guicciardini's legal education and his political theory. In dialogue with his friend Machiavelli and.
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File:Guicciardini, Francesco – Scritti politici e ricordi, – BEIC Size of this JPG preview of this PDF file: × pixels. (Download) Astor Piazzolla Tango for Two Pianos pdf by Astor Piazzolla · ( Download) Bristol Rovers: Two to One Boek Ricordi Francesco Guicciardini pdf. Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , T. Zanato and others published Some fine-tuning of Guicciardini's Ricordi.
Ined,, voL L p. On the one hand, it may be thought that, save with this intention, he would not have given the time and pains it must have cost PREFACE.
On the other hand, many private opinions are expressed in them which he could hardly have desired to be made generally known to his contemporaries. To himself, the chief utility of the collection was as a storehouse of profound reflections and rules of conduct, to be drawn on for the adornment or illustration of his other writings. Many of them reappear in the interesting Dialogue on the Government o f Florence, in which Ber nardo del Nero, Piero Capponi, Pagolantonio Soderini, and the authors father, Piero Guic ciardini, are made the interlocutors.
Even in his private correspon dence we find the Ricordt reappearing in a shape easy to recognise. A collection of these was made and printed in a separate table by Thomaso Porcacchi in his annotated edition of the Istoria, published at Venice in In Jacopo Corbinelli an Italian gentleman who had been employed by the Queen Mother, Catherine de Medici, as ,2 1 The Storia Fiorentina, which is believed to have been an early work of the author, contains fewer of these Reflections than any other of his writings.
H ist vol. Amsterdam, The diffe rent order in which they stand as printed by Corbinelli from that in which they occur in the authors manuscript, is explained in a letter to Monsignore Pomponio Believre, in which Corbinelli claims credit for having given the work a more consecutive arrange ment than it had when it came into his hands.
Corbinellis text is accompanied by notes suggesting sources whence Guicciardini may have derived his ideas, and references are supplied to parallel passages in the 1 P iii Consigli et A w ertim en ti diM.
G uicciardini, Gentilhuomo Fior. In he was General Commissary of the Papal army. From he was in Rome as counselor of the Pope, who appointed him General Lieu- tenant of his army, shortly after the conclusion of the League of Cognac. In his solitude, three fervid literary years commenced, which he concei- ved as a different way of pursuing his political efforts. The drafts of the Ricordi belong to this pe- riod. The work represents a collection of thoughts that he started gathering during his mission in Spain.
He wrote three orations, the Consolatoria, the Accusatoria and the Defensoria, in which he set up a trial against himself, picturing the scene before the Quarantia, newly established with the restoration of the republic in Especially in the Accusatoria and in the incomplete De- fensoria, the jurist offers an example of his rhetorical skills, his expertise, and his education — e.
In , after the fall of the Florentine republic, Guicciardini became one of the Otto di Pratica, summoned to deal with the administration of justice throughout the city.
As on previous occa- sions, Guicciardini closely follows the established legal tradition on the topic.
At this time he wrote his ma- sterpiece on which he worked until his death on 22 May , the History of Italy. The History sprung from the Commentarii della luogotenenza, a memoir concerning the events which occurred during the period of his Lieutenancy, in which he recalled his personal experience of the war of In his History of Italy the only work, together with the Ricordi, draft A, printed during the 16th century, after , he once again portrayed himself himself as a doctor of law.
In the late Re- naissance European jurists correctly pointed out that the History of Italy was a book written by a legally trained historian, referring to it to shape their ideas upon the State, sovereignty a word used by Guicciardini in the History , the real power of the emperor, and the right of war.
In the History of Italy, as has been remarked, Guicciardini worked with archival documents in a way entirely new Ridolfi, , This method, as revealed by the footnotes of the Cose Fiorentine a sort of dry run for the more advanced History of Italy , was rooted in legal reasoning.
We find other examples of this in the Florentine Histories, e. Thus he was a true concealed tyrant, legally speaking. However, the application of such rules to a specific case which might have different underlying circumstances required the use of discretion. Guicciardini in the philosophy of the Renaissance Situating Guicciardini in the tradition of Renaissance philosophy is not an easy task. If we are to identify his main points of reference, we should first note that, since most of his work was not intended for publication except for the History of Italy and, perhaps at first, the Dialogue on the government of Florence his writings do not include explicit quotations.
This does not mean that there are no references to the classical literature which was part of his humanist education: Plato, Xenophon, Aristotle, Cicero, Seneca, Tacitus, Plutarch, Augustine, Thomas Aquinas, as well as Dante, Petrarch and Boccaccio were some of his preferred authors.
However, it is not owing to their presence that we can trace the originality of his thought. Recalling these sources is useful in order not to take Guicciardini too seriously when he states that he is not familiar with philosophers. Undoubtedly, the aim of distancing himself from philosophy can be read as evidence of his preference for historians and jurists rather than philosophers.
Thus, we might re- call that from his very first works, e. Gilbert, , Therefore, it was his legal education, which underlies his entire political work, which made him capable of un- derstanding in a profound way the emerging tension between the legal tradition and the political experience of states.
Undoubtedly he was led to this approach because of his arguments with Machiavelli — Guicciardini was not only his friend but also his most perceptive reader. The close relation between historical events, political experience and a theoretical framework clearly appears in his first endeavours, e.
In this work he tries to shape all the historical material collected for the Florentine Histories into a constitutional proposal. Such a text was conceived as an effort to define a proper republican government for Flo- rence, with a senate along with the gonfalonier and the great council. However, this endeavour was overtaken by events.
Just a few days after Guicciardini completed his Discourse, the Medici were back in Florence and the republican period was over.
This model, as Alison Brown has pointed out, dis- cussing its subsequent inclusion in the Dialogue on the government of Florence, should not be deemed a defence of a hereditary aristocracy. In fact, although according to his model a senate of men had the political power, the legislative power lay in the popular Great Council, entitled to appoint individu- als to offices.
And therein lies the difficulty that so troubles our city. Guicciardini reveals a realistic attitude much more clearly than Machiavelli, since he always indicates the legal or philosophical tradition from which he is departing.
An essen- tial element of his theoretical framework is his personal relationship to the classics that have dealt with a particular issue. He always confronts them judging their results according to his own reason and experience. It is this use of reason that can either provide justification for a statement or call it into question.
The Ricordi are his most interesting theoretical work if we want to delve into the ties between reality and tradition, between reason and authority. This is due to the fact that men are in the dark about such matters, so their investigation appears more as an exercise for the intellect than as really capable of finding the truth. For if you consider their origin, they are all illegit- imate, with the exception only of republics ruling their own cities, and nowhere else.
This discourse is not based on abstract princi- ples, relying on, say, a legal tradition, but it is backed by clear-cut historical experience, which Guicciardini explains in analyzing the related events in his Cose fiorentine and in some censored chapters of the History of Italy. Experience was the testing ground for every theory and at the same time the place from which his theory sprung.
In their various drafts, the Ricordi could also be read as a response to the method of imitation of ancient exempla devised by Machiavelli. The latter introduced his Discourses on Livy as an attempt to present in the form of commentary a body of examples helpful in ruling republics. A commentary, such as the legal ones, would have held its own authority for its contemporaries. According to Machiavelli, law, just like medicine, is a discipline that makes a successful use of antiquity. In this connection, the lessons of history could be successful in politics only if used just like jurists and physicians do with the exempla of their own discipline.
For any comparison to be valid, it would be necessary to have a city with conditions like theirs, and then to govern it according to their example. Guicciardini, referring to his friend Machiavelli, discourages the uncondi- tional application of examples and precedents as a faulty method. One is to judge not according to examples, but according to laws and rules. Unless they are similar in every respect, examples are useless, since every tiny difference in the case may be a cause of great variations in the effects.
The example is not bin- ding in the judicial process, when it is not considered suitable for the particular case. Therefore, Guicciardini believes that it is not according to examples that one can judge rightly, but only according to rules.
Therefore, the rule itself does not create law. A rule is derived from the union of several cases, which have the same rationale. The judge will have to see whether a particular rule may or may not be applied to the case in question, using discretion, above all, and passing from the universal rule to the particular case.
This was the way of thinking for which a jurist such as Guicciardini received formal training. His Ricordi is an attempt to write a body of such carefully-crafted rules. The way Guicciardini tries to decode them and give us a key to the proper interpretation of his work is strictly related to his legal background, despite a still-present tradition of aphoristic writings.
He was not simply writing a book of aphorisms, rather he aimed to write a real book of rules, as he revealed in the aforemen- tioned ricordo A In nearly all things one must make distinctions and exceptions because of differences in their circumstances. These circumstan- ces are not covered by one and the same rule. Nor can these distinctions and exceptions be found written in books.
The unconditional use of examples, which ac- cording to his idea of legal training, Machiavelli wanted to apply to politics, is completely called into question by his friend Guicciardini. Therefore, the debate about the foundations of modern po- litical thought appears essentially as a dispute about the two different ways of applying examples and rules to a particular case.